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Research Sources for MG Beta Glucan
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For more research on beta glucan and MG beta glucan categorized by research associated with various health situations, go to the non-commercial site www.betaglucan.org. Also review U.S. Patent 6,476,003 which discusses MG beta glucan research on a unique process by which MG beta glucan can be produced. Frank Jordan as Research Director of Nutritional Scientific Corporation and Kenneth Hunter ScD as Research Director from the University of Nevada School of Medicine, Department of Microbiology, discuss MG Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan U.S. Medical School research, now in its 18th consecutive year.
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Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology: Conjugation of protein antigen to microparticulate B-glucan [MG] from Saccharomyces cerevisiae : a new adjuvant for intradermal and oral immunizations
Immunology Letters 98 (2005) 115–122: IFN-y primes macrophages for enhanced TNF-a expression in response to stimulatory and non-stimulatory amounts of microparticulate B-glucan
Immunology Letters 93 (2004) 71-78: Microparticulate B-glucan upregulates the expression of B7.1, B7.2, B7-H1, but not B7-DC on cultured murine peritoneal macrophages
NIH Grant Application - Abstract Excerpt : Microparticulate Glucan (MG) as a Vaccine Adjuvant
Research Presentation - Stanford University Western Conference on Immunology - 2002: MG Beta Glucan Research Presented at Stanford University at Western Conference on Immunology
Letters in Applied Microbiology (Oct 2002) Vol 35, Issue 4, p 267: Preparation of microparticulate B-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae for use in immune potentiation
Research Summary Release - Mode of
Action of B-Glucan Immunopotentiators - January 2001:
Activation of Immune Defense Against Infectious Disease
Preliminary MG Glucan Research Findings - University of Nevada School of Medicine - Reno
On going 2013 Research Study
Kenneth W. Hunter Jr. January 2013
For oral MG (microparticulate glucan) to cause changes in the immune system, it must be absorbed across the epithelium of the small intestine. There are those who say that particulate b-glucan cannot be absorbed. Giving a dose equivalent to the MG Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan, 10 mg capsule, it was found that fluorescently labeled MG crosses the small intestinal epithelium and is phagocytized by mucosal dendritic cells (DC). In the mucosal associated immune system (MALT), the mucosal dendritic cell is the gatekeeper for almost all immune responses.
Note: MG refers to Micronized Glucan. DC refers to Mucosal Dendritic Cells.
Immunology Letters 98 (2005) 115–122
IFN-y primes macrophages for enhanced TNF-a expression in response to stimulatory and non-stimulatory amounts of microparticulate B-glucan
Mathew D. Berner, Michael E. Sura, Bryce N. Alves, Kenneth W. Hunter Jr.∗
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Applied Research Facility,
MS-199, Reno, NV 89557, USA
Abstract [IFN-y is Interferon Gamma which is a type II class of Interferons as a dimerized soluble cytokine important for fighting viral infections and for immune system regulation]
Beta-(1→3)-d-Glucan is an integral cell wall component of a variety of fungi, plants, and bacteria. Like the prototypic inflammatory mediator
lipopolysaccharide (LPS), some Beta-(1→3)-d-glucan-containing preparations have been shown to induce the production of proinflammatory
cytokines by macrophages. In the present study, we have tested a new microparticulate form of -(1→3)-d-glucan (MG) fromSaccharomyces
cerevisiaefor its ability to induce proinflammatory cytokine secretion in mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro, and we have examined the
effect of IFN-.MG was rapidly phagocytized by peritoneal macrophages, and these MG-treated macrophages upregulated TNF-, IL-6, and
IL-1 mRNAs and secreted these proinflammatory cytokines.
IFN- treatment alone did not induce unstimulated macrophages to produce TNF-. However, a 4 h IFN- pretreatment augmented TNF- secretion by
peritoneal macrophages subsequently treated with an optimally stimulatory dose of MG. IFN- pretreatment for 2 h followed by thorough washing
and a further 2 h incubation without IFN- still resulted in enhanced TNF- production in response to MG, suggesting that IFN- can prime macrophages
for a subsequent proinflammatory response.
Most interestingly, we found that IFN- pretreatment of peritoneal macrophages enhanced the TNF- response to amounts of MG that were
poorly stimulatory or non-stimulatory in the absence of IFN- priming. These data suggest that a synergy between IFN- and -glucan may
have evolved to lower the threshold of sensitivity of the innate immune response to fungal pathogens.
Keywords: -Glucan; Lipopolysaccharide; IFN-; TNF-; Proinflammatory cytokines
Beta-(1→3)-d-Glucan (-glucan) is an integral cell wall constituent found in a variety of plants, bacteria, and fungi
[1–3]. Macrophages and several other cell-types of the innate immune system have evolved pattern recognition receptors
that bind to this conserved structure on pathogenic fungi[4–7]. Interaction of B-glucan with its receptor on
macrophages causes these cells to produce proinflammatory mediators[8–10], and to upregulate the expression of costimulatory
molecules. We have recently prepared MG, a microparticulate form of B-glucan from the yeast Saccharomyces
cerevisiaefor use as a vaccine adjuvant . We ∗ Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 7753275255; fax: +1 7757841142.
E-mail address: email@example.com (K.W. Hunter Jr.).
Researchers were interested in studying its effect on the proinflammatory
cytokine response of murine peritoneal macrophages in vitro. Moreover, because it has been shown that the proin-
flammatory response of alveolar macrophages to soluble B-glucan is markedly enhanced by IFN-y [13,14], we wanted
to see if the MG-mediated proinflammatory cytokine response of peritoneal macrophages would be enhanced by
IFN-y. We demonstrate that MG induces proinflammatory gene expression and protein secretion in murine peritoneal
macrophages in a dose-dependent manner, and that IFN-y can prime these cells for an enhanced response. Moreover,
IFN-y pretreated macrophages demonstrated a striking enhancement of TNF- secretion to poorly or non-stimulatory
amounts of MG, suggesting that the response threshold of macrophages to B-glucan can be lowered by IFN-y
0165-2478/$ – see front matter © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.imlet.2004.10.020
116 M.D. Berner et al. / Immunology Letters 98 (2005) 115–122
2. Materials and methods
Female BALB/c mice aged 6–8 weeks and weighing 18–24 g were obtained from Charles River Laboratories
(Wilmington, MA). All animals were housed in microisolator cages in a temperature-controlled facility
kept on a 12 h photoperiod. Food and water were provided ad libitum. All research described in this paper
was done under a protocol approved by the University of Nevada, Reno Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee.
Sterile filtered RPMI 1640 (with l-glutamine and 25mM HEPES) was obtained from Biowhittaker (Walkersville,
MD). Fetal bovine serum (FBS) was obtained from Hyclone (Logan, UT), and was also sterile filtered. Lipopolysaccharide
(LPS) from Escherichia coli 011:B4 was obtained from Sigma Chemical Company (St. Louis, MO). Starting material
for the preparation of MG was a B-glucan-rich extract from S. cerevisiae obtained from Nutritional Supply Corporation
(Carson City, NV).
2.3. Microparticulate B-glucan
MG was prepared as previously described. Briefly, S. cerevisiae yeast cells were subjected to a series of chemical
extractions to remove most protein, lipid, nucleic acid, and non-glucan carbohydrate, resulting in a particulate material
with >93% B-(1→3)-d-glucan. However, examination of this dried yeast extract in aqueous buffer revealed
aggregates of small particles ranging from 5 to 50 um.
A sonication/spray drying procedure was used to make a microparticulate preparation consisting essentially of individual
particles with an average diameter of 1.7±0.3 um that upon rehydration remained in the microparticulate form.
Concentrations of MG used in this study are based on dry weight.
2.4. Preparation of fluorophore-labeled MG
Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA) in sodium carbonate buffer, pH
9.0 for 8 h at 4 ◦C in the dark. After extensive dialysis in PBS to remove any unbound FITC molecules, an analysis of the
FITC–BSA conjugate revealed a fluorescein to protein (F/P) ratio of 0.71. The conjugation of FITC–BSA toMGinvolved
the use of water-soluble carbodiimide [N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride]. Carbodiimide
first binds to the primary NH2 functionality in partially deacetylated chitin on the outside of MG. Following incubation,
any unbound carbodiimide was removed by centrifugal washes (350×g). With the addition of FITC–BSA to the
reaction mixture, the carbodiimide binds a free carboxyl group from BSA, thereby resulting in the MG:FITC–BSA
conjugate. The MG:FITC–BSA was washed extensively by centrifugal washes to remove any unbound FITC–BSA.
2.5. Endotoxin testing
All reagents contacting live cells were tested for endotoxin levels prior to use. To avoid cross-reaction in the standard
limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) test, the endospecy® endotoxin-specific test (Seikagaku America Inc. via Associates
of Cape Cod Inc.) was used to evaluate all B-glucan-containing preparations. All reagents used during cell
culture, including the MG, were determined to be below 0.15 IU/mL.
2.6. Macrophage isolation and cell culture
Mice were euthanized by halothane inhalation, then 7–10 ml ice-cold RPMI 1640 supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated
FBS was injected into their peritoneal cavities. Lavage fluids were pooled from several mice and large,
macrophage-like cells were counted on a hemacytometer. The cells were then placed in 6- or 24-well tissue culture
plates (Costar), or 8-well chambered slides (Nunc) at 3.0×105/ml. Plates were then placed in a 37 ◦C incubator
supplemented with 5% CO2. Macrophages were allowed to adhere for 4 h, at which point the wells were
washed three times with endotoxin-free, phosphate buffered saline (PBS) to rinse away most non-adherent cells.
Flow cytometric analysis of these cell preparations routinely revealed 85% F4/80 positive macrophages, 15% CD19-
positive B lymphocytes, and less than 1% other cells. Since dendritic cells can also be F4/80 positive, we
have stained the adherent cells with antibodies to CD11c and find less than 0.5% positive cells, indicating that the
F4/80 positive cells are macrophages. One millilitre fresh RPMI 1640 supplemented with 10% FBS was then added
to each well and incubated for 6–12 h prior to stimulation.
2.7. Enzyme linked immunosorbent
All cytokines were measured using ELISA kits (Pharmingen, San Diego, CA) as per the manufacturers instructions.
Briefly, 96-well microtiter plates (Nunc) were coated with purified monoclonal capture antibodies for TNF-, IL-6, and
IL-1. The plates were then incubated overnight at 4 ◦C. Recombinant standards or samples were added to the wells
for 2 h. The wells were then incubated with detection antibodies conjugated to horseradish peroxidase and allowed
to bind for 1 h at RT. The wells were then incubated with TMB substrate solution (Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis,
MO) for 30 min, and the reaction stopped with 2N H2SO4.
M.D. Berner et al. / Immunology Letters 98 (2005) 115–122 117
Absorbance was read at 450 nm on a thermomax microplate reader and analyzed on Softmax Pro® software (Molecular
2.8. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction
All materials used in the mRNA extraction were purchased in an endotoxin-free/RNase-free state. Macrophages
were detached from wells using cell lifters (Costar) and cytoplasmic extract was obtained using an RNeasyTM kit (Qiagen).
Briefly, cells were resuspended in 175 ml of plasma membrane lysis buffer (50mM Tris–HCl pH 8.0, 140mM
NaCl, 1.5mMMgCl2, 0.5% Nonidet P-40, 1.0mMDTT, and 1000 U/ml RNase inhibitor) in a 1.5 ml centrifuge tube, and
allowed to lyse for 5 min on ice. The lysate was then spun down at 300×g for 2 min to pellet the nuclei. The supernate,
which contains cytoplasmic residue including mRNA, was decanted into a new 1.5 ml centrifuge tube, at which point
600l of a proprietary buffer from the RNeasyTM kit containing 1.0% (v/v) -mercaptoethanolwas added. Isolation of
mRNA was achieved using an ExpressDirectTM mRNA capture system (Pierce, Rockford, IL) as per the manufacturers
instructions. Briefly, 50 l of lysate was incubated in a 0.2 ml PCR tube in which oligo(dT) had been covalently bonded to
The mRNA was then allowed to bind for 15 min at room temperature. Contaminating DNA as well as other
cytoplasmic residue was eliminated bywashing twice using a high salt buffer and then a low salt buffer provided in the kit.
Reverse transcription was then performed at 37 ◦C for 60 min in a thermocycler (Perkin-Elmer) using the reagents provided
in the kit: M-MuLV reverse transcriptase, buffer, dNTPs, and RNase inhibitor. The use of extra oligo(dT)’s was not necessary
as the covalently bonded oligo(dT) functioned as the primer. PCR was then performed by first removing the residual RT
reagents. The new cDNA was hybridized to them RNA which was attached to the covalently-linked oligo (dT) and
therefore remained in the tube. A 45 l aliquot of Platinum Taq SuperMix TM (GibcoBRL) and 1.0M of each primer,
forward and reverse, were then placed into the tube. Primers used in these experiments and amplimer sizes were as follows:
TNF- forward 5-CCAGACCCTCACACTCAGAT-3 and reverse 5-AACACCCATTCCCTTCACAG-3 (498 bp),
IL-6 forward 5-TGGGACTGATGCTGGTGAC-3 and reverse 5-TCTGCAAGTGCATCATCGTT-3 (211 bp), IL-1
forward 5-GAGCC-TGTGTTTCCTCCTTG-3 and reverse 5-CAAGTGCAAGGCTATGACCA-3 (172 bp).
PCR reactions were run in a GeneAmpTM PCR System 2400 (Perkin-Elmer) with a 3 min, 94 ◦C pre-heat, followed by 94 ◦C for
30 s, 55 ◦C for 1 min, and 71 ◦C for 1 min, with a 7 min final extension at 71 ◦C. The appropriate number of cycles was
determined for each individual primer set in order to determine an appropriate endpoint within the exponential phase
of amplification. Ten microlitre of PCR product was run on a 2% agarose gel and stained with ethidium bromide. Bands
were visualized using a Gel Doc® system and analyzed using Quantity One® software (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules,
3.1. MG is rapidly phagocytized by mouse peritoneal
macrophages in vitro
We first verified that MG is phagocytized by non-activated peritoneal macrophages. Our initial observations with unlabeled
MG suggested that these particles were avidly phagocytized by non-activated peritoneal macrophages.
However, to eliminate the possibility that the particles were only adherent to the surface of the cells, MG was conjugated
with FITC–BSA as described, and then fluorescent particles were incubated for various time periods with cultured
macrophages at a final concentration of 100 mg/mL/106 cells. The number of MG phagocytized per macrophage
was then determined by fluorescence microscopy. Under the conditions described, 100% of viable macrophages had
phagocytized MG by 4 h, with an average of 14.4±8.7 particles/macrophage (Fig. 1). Quenching the fluorescence
of non-internalized particles by addition of 0.1M trypan blue dye (pH 4.4) revealed that most particles were internalized,
and therefore counts made under brightfield microscopy accurately reflected phagocytosis.
3.2. MG induces proinflammatory cytokine mRNA and protein secretion by mouse peritoneal macrophages
To verify that our new MG preparation upregulates the genes and enhances the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines
by mouse peritoneal macrophages, cultures with 106 cells were incubated for 4 h with 100 mg/mLMG or medium,
then the cells were lysed and RNA harvested for RT-PCR analysis of cytokine mRNAs. At 4 h, when the macrophages
had ingested on average more than a dozen MG, mRNAs for TNF-, IL-6, and to a lesser extent, IL-1 were upregulated
(Fig. 2). Supernatants harvested from cultures treated with 100g/mL MG for 12 h were tested by ELISA and found to
have significant levels of TNF- and IL-6 proteins. A lower level of IL-1 protein was seen, but this was significantly
higher than the level found in unstimulated cultures (Fig. 2).
Note that 100mg/mL of a similar particulate B-(1→3)-dglucan-containing preparation from S. cerevisiae was shown
by others to induce maximal levels of proinflammatory cytokines by mouse alveolar macrophages . Further studies
reported in this paper concentrate on the induction of TNF-.
3.3. Effect of IFN- on TNF- secretion by mouse
peritoneal macrophages treated in vitro with different
concentrations of MG or LPS
It has been reported that IFN-y treatment of macrophages enhances their proinflammatory cytokine response to -
118 M.D. Berner et al. / Immunology Letters 98 (2005) 115–122
Fig. 1. MG is phagocytized by macrophages in a time-dependent manner. Macrophages were incubated for 4 h with FITC–BSA coated MG (100 mg/mL) then
examined by (A) brightfield or (B) epifluorescence microscopy. Ingestion was established by quenching all non-internalized particles with trypan blue (pH 4.4).
(C) At 30 min intervals 50 macrophages were examined by fluorescence microscopy and the mean number of ingested MG particles±S.D. was calculated. (D)
The percent of macrophages with ≥1 particle, and ≥5 particles was also determined. glucan[13,14], and we wanted to know if IFN-y would
also enhance the proinflammatory response to MG. Cultures of mouse peritoneal macrophages (2.5×105/well) were
left untreated or treated for 4 h with 2 ng/mL of IFN-y. At this time, various doses of MG (0.01–1000g/mL) or LPS
(0.01–1000 ng/mL) were added and the macrophages incubated for an additional 4 h. Supernatants were then harvested
and analyzed by ELISA for TNF- (Fig. 3, black bars). The optimal stimulatory doses of LPS and MG for TNF- production
were 1.0 ng/mL and 100g/mL, respectively. However, at optimal concentrations LPS induced nearly 10-fold more
TNF- than did MG (3291 pg/mL versus 340 pg/mL). It thus appears that while our new MG preparation upregulates the
expression of TNF- it is less potent than the prototypic inflammatory mediator LPS. [3rd Party Note: LPS is toxic to humans]
IFN-y pretreatment alone did not cause the peritoneal macrophages to secrete TNF- (Fig. 3, gray bars). However,
the optimally stimulatory doses of LPS and MG were enhanced 5- and 3.5-fold, respectively, by IFN-y pretreatment.
Interestingly, doses of both MG and LPS that were unstimulatory or poorly stimulatory caused the secretion of
TNF- if the macrophages had been pretreated with IFN-y. For example, 0.1 g/mL dose of MG did not induce TNF-
secretion above control levels, but IFN-y pretreatment resulted in an 8.6-fold increase. The highest dose of MG tested
(1000mg/mL) showed a poor stimulation of TNF- secretion, and many macrophages were dead or had released from
the substrate, suggesting toxicity. However, IFN-y pretreatment caused robust secretion of TNF- presumably by the
residual live macrophages.
Finally, we asked whether the priming effect of IFN-y required that the cytokine be present in the culture milieu
during stimulation with MG and LPS. As shown inFig. 4, removal of IFN-y after 2 h of pretreatment did not significantly
reduce macrophage priming for subsequent MG or LPS-induced TNF- production. These data suggest that the
biochemical changes induced by IFN-y persisted for at least 2 h after removal of the cytokine.
In the present study we show that MG, a new microparticulate form of B-glucan derived from the yeast S. cerevisiae
, is rapidly phagocytized by mouse peritoneal macrophages. MG treatment caused peritoneal macrophages
to upregulate the genes for TNF-, IL-6, and IL-1, and to secrete these proinflammatory cytokines. The dose–response
and kinetics of in vitro cytokine production were similar to those described by Hoffman et al. for rat alveolar
M.D. Berner et al. / Immunology Letters 98 (2005) 115–122 119
Fig. 2. MG activates macrophages to secrete inflammatory cytokines. (A) Macrophages (3.0×105/mL) were exposed to MG for 4 h after which the lysate
was assayed by RT-PCR for TNF-, IL-6, IL-1, and -actin. (B) Supernatant was collected after 12 h and assayed by ELISA for TNF-, IL-6, and IL-1.
RT-PCR results are from one of three independent experiments with similar results. ELISA results are the mean±S.D. of duplicate samples from one of three
Fig. 3. IFN-y enhances the macrophage TNF- response to both MG and LPS. Peritoneal macrophages were incubated for 4 h with various doses of
(A) MG or (B) LPS with (gray bars) or without (black bars) a 4 h preincubation with IFN- (2.0 ng/mL). The data represent the mean±S.D. of
culture supernatants run in triplicate, and are representative of two independent experiments in (A) and three in (B). macrophages and by Abel and Czop for human monocytes treated with particulate B-glucans. Interpretation of published B-glucan studies requires attention to the source and the physical/
chemical form used (i.e., soluble or particulate, linear or branched chain), as significant functional differences have
been reported[16–19]. As an oversimplification, most particulate and some soluble B-glucan-containing preparations
induce proinflammatory mediators. While it is tempting to Fig. 4. IFN-y primes the macrophage TNF- response to both MG and LPS.
To determine whether the enhanced TNF- response of macrophages to MG and LPS was dependent upon the continued presence of IFN-y in the culture
milieu, the cultures were treated with 2 ng/mL IFN-y for 2 h then washed three times with pyrogen-free PBS. The wells were refilled with fresh media
without IFN-y and allowed to incubate for 2 h. The cells were then treated with media, MG (100 g/mL), or LPS (100 ng/mL) for 4 h. The supernatants
were then analyzed in triplicate by ELISA for the presence of TNF- protein. Shown are representative results (mean±S.D.) from one of two independent
120 M.D. Berner et al. / Immunology Letters 98 (2005) 115–122 describe structure-function relationships, some apparent differences
may be caused by LPS contamination; surprisingly few B-glucan studies have adequately dealt with this problem.
Because B-glucan triggers the standard Limulus assay, we analyzed our MG preparations with a LPS-specific Endospecy®
assay and specifically excluded any preparation with more than 1.5 IU/mL.
In our study, we compared the effects of MG with LPS and found that the optimal dose of LPS was 1000-fold lower than
MG, yet LPS still induced nearly 10-fold more secreted TNF- protein. Perhaps this explains why septic shock syndrome
with high serum TNF- levels and significant morbidity and mortality is not usually described for fungal infections even
though large amounts of B-glucan can be demonstrated in the serum[20,21]. Indeed, it has been suggested that B-glucan
released from fungal pathogens down regulates the production of TNF- in response to LPS. It has been reported
that grifolan, a soluble -glucan preparation, stimulated more TNF- than did LPS, however this unusual result may
have been due to the use of a less potent LPS preparation.
IFN-y is a potent macrophage activator, and this cytokine synergizes with LPS to enhance proinflammatory mediator
production by macrophages[23–27], and it has been suggested that IFN-y is a principal mediator of the toxic effects
of LPS in vivo[28–32]. The combined effect of IFN-y and LPS is probably more physiologically relevant than LPS
alone, as IFN- is secreted by NK cells and T cells in response to LPS. Sakurai et al.  demonstrated that a
soluble B-glucan preparation enhanced proinflammatory cytokine production in murine alveolar macrophages in vitro.
When these alveolar macrophages were treated with IFN-y either before or at the same time as B-glucan, they had a
markedly augmented proinflammatory cytokine response and also showed enhanced production of nitric oxide. In a later in
vivo study they suggested that IFN- produced by activated T lymphocytes may contribute to the deleterious inflammatory
response to fungal pathogens in the lung. Ohno et al.  found that various soluble and particulate B-glucan
preparations administered to mice induced nitric oxide production by macrophages ex vivo. However, in vitro cultures
of peritoneal macrophages and the macrophage-like cell line RAW 264.7 failed to produce nitric oxide unless they were
treated with IFN- and B-glucan simultaneously, suggesting that the B-glucan-induced production of this proinflammatory
mediator was IFN- dependent.
We performed experiments to determine whether IFN-y would have a synergistic effect with our new MG preparation
and found that TNF- protein secretion by peritoneal macrophages treated with a optimally stimulatory dose of
MG was increased 3.5-fold by pretreatment with IFN-y. IFN-y alone did not result in secretion of any measurable amount
of TNF- protein, a finding consistent with a previous report suggesting that IFN-y does not induce proinflammatory
cytokines in the absence of another proinflammatory signal. We also discovered that the priming effect of IFN-y
was still present if the IFN-y was washed away 2 h before MG or LPS stimulation, suggesting that IFN--induced biochemical
changes in the macrophages are stable for at least 2 h after exposure. This is consistent with the ability of IFN-y
to prime macrophages for enhanced nitric oxide production in response to LPS. It is certainly possible that IFN-y remains attached to the IFN-y receptors after the bulk is washed away.
The possibility also exists that the macrophage, once exposed to IFN-, begins to produce just enough of its own IFN-y to remain primed. This idea is supported by studies showing that macrophages secrete low levels of IFN-y constitutively  and more in response to LPS . This
priming effect was not limited to TNF- as IFN-y also enhanced IL-6 secretion by MG- and LPS-treated macrophages
(data not shown). Gifford and Lohmann-Matthes  reported that IFN-y treated mouse and human macrophages showed enhanced
TNF- responses to doses of LPS that were non-stimulatory without IFN-y priming. In the present study, we verified
these previous findings for LPS and found that IFN-y priming significantly augmented TNF- production in peritoneal
macrophages treated with poorly stimulatory and even nonstimulatory doses of MG. We also found that high doses of
MG were toxic to macrophages and caused a significant inhibition of TNF- secretion. This was consistent with results
from Olson et al.  who reported that high doses of a particulate B-glucan derived from Pneumocystis carinii
blocked proinflammatory cytokine production in alveolar macrophages.
However, we found that when macrophages were pretreated with IFN-, a significant amount of TNF- was secreted in response to these high and toxic doses of MG,
presumably by enhancing cytokine secretion by a minority population of live cells in the cultures.
The mechanism by which IFN- primes macrophages for enhanced proinflammatory mediator production in response
to second signals remains unknown, though it has been reported that IFN- upregulates the LPS receptor molecule
TLR-4  and increases the number of B-glucan binding sites [13,14]. In their study of IFN-y priming of TNF-a secretion
by LPS, Held et al.  demonstrated that IFN-y caused the degradation of IB chain, thus allowing NF-B
to more quickly translocate to the nucleus and bind DNA. It has been demonstrated that although B-glucan binds to different
receptors than LPS [4–7], it apparently signals through the NF-B pathway [39–41].
Therefore, the mechanism whereby IFN- primes macrophages for enhanced TNF-a production in response to B-glucan may be similar to that of LPS. It
is interesting to note that Sherwood et al.  showed that B-glucan potentiates IFN-y expression in response to LPS,
possibly demonstrating a reciprocal communication between the IFN-y signaling pathway  and the NF-B pathway.
In summary, we have demonstrated that a new microparticulate form of B-glucan induces a dose-dependent production
of proinflammatory cytokines in mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro, and that IFN-y primes these cells for
enhanced cytokine production in response to both stimulatory and non-stimulatory amounts of MG. The synergy between IFN-y and B-glucan may have evolved to lower the sensitivity threshold of the innate immune response to fungal pathogens.
This work was supported in part by grants from the Henry Rushing Fund, and by funds from Nutritional Supply Corporation
(Carson City, NV). Brandon Carter provided excellent technical support.
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Microparticulate B-glucan upregulates the expression of B7.1, B7.2, B7-H1, but not B7-DC on cultured murine peritoneal macrophages
a Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV 89557, USA; b Department of Biology, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557, USA
Beta-1,3-()-glucan from a variety of biological sources has been shown to enhance both humoral and cellular immune responses to a variety of antigens, infectious agents, and tumors. Nevertheless, its mode of action has not been fully defined. We sought to determine whether a 1–2 m diameter microparticulate form of -glucan (MG) from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae could regulate expression of B7 family glycoproteins on resident peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice. We discovered that MG [microparticulate Beta -1,3-(D)-glucan] upregulated B7.2 mRNA expression and enhanced the surface membrane expression of B7.2 glycoprotein.
Although B7.1 mRNA was not upregulated above constitutive levels, MG [microparticulate Beta -1,3-(D)-glucan] treatment enhanced B7.1 glycoprotein expression on the macrophages, albeit to a lesser extent than B7.2. At the same time, the gene and cell surface expression of B7-H1, a putative negative regulator of T cell activity, was also upregulated by MG. The expression of B7-DC, another B7 family molecule with negative regulatory activity, was not affected by incubation with MG.
This study has demonstrated that a microparticulate form of -glucan can enhance B7 co-stimulatory molecule expression on macrophages, thereby enabling these antigen-presenting cells to deliver the second signal to T-lymphocytes that express CD28. In addition, because MG [microparticulate Beta -1,3-(D)-glucan] also induces the expression of B7-H1, it may enable macrophages to provide a concomitant downregulatory signal to T-lymphocytes expressing PD-1 or related receptors.
Excerpt from page 77, Immunology Letters 93 (2004) 71-78
The upregulation of B7.1 and B7.2 co-stimulatory molecule expression demonstrated in this study suggests that MG [microparticulate Beta -1,3-(D)-glucan] can generate the second signal needed for T cell activation. Interestingly, MG [microparticulate Beta -1,3-(D)-glucan] also upregulates the expression of B7-H1 surface molecules that can interact with PD-1 and perhaps unknown receptors on activated T cells predominantly to send downregulatory signals.
The simultaneous presence of T cell upregulatory (B7.1/B7.2) and downregulatory (B7-H1) molecules on APCs would seem to be a conundrum. However, it is possible that activation or suppression is determined not by the differential expression of B7 family molecules on APCs, but rather by the differential expression of their respective ligands, CD28 and PD-1, on T cells.
MG [microparticulate Beta -1,3-(D)-glucan] may therefore serve as an adjuvant, upregulating critical co-stimulatory responses, while at the same time upregulating cell surface molecules on macrophages that can downregulate T cell responses, or perhaps channel them in different directions.
Funds from Nutritional Supply Corporation, Carson City, NV, The Henry Rushing Fund and a matching grant from the State of Nevada Applied Research Initiative supported this work.
Note: The MG Beta Glucan referenced in the study is produced by a U.S. Patent exclusive to NSC Immunition Products.
Microparticulate Glucan (MG) as a Vaccine Adjuvant
Kenneth W. Hunter Jr.∗
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Applied Research Facility,
MS-199, Reno, NV 89557, USA
As part of an Abstract related to Microparticulate Glucan as a Vaccine Adjuvant (Jan 2003), Kenneth W. Hunter, Jr. ScD from the University of Reno School of Medicine, Dept of Microbiology reported,
"Nutritional Supply Corporation has recently developed a novel microparticulate form of beta-1,3-(D)-glucan (MG) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae...The uniform 1-2 micron diameter MG is rapidly enocytosed by APC's (macrophages and dendritic cells), and most importantly, upregulates the expression of B7 family co-stimulatory molecules in the APC's. Without co-stimulation, APC's not only fail to activate T lymphocites, but they may actually induce an unresponsive state called tolerance."
APC's are antigen presenting cells which are essential to a proper immune response wherein T Cells are properly activated. "Enocytosis" is the process of cellular ingestion in which the plasma membrane folds inward to bring substances into the cell.
MG Beta Glucan Research Presented at Stanford University at Western Conference on Immunology
David Berner from the University of Nevada School of Medicine, Department of
Microbiology, presented research results at Stanford University at the
prestigious Western Conference in Immunology. The research report findings
were based on nonaggregated, microparticulate glucan's (MG glucan) superior
potentiation of murine macrophages.
The medical school research has demonstrated microparticulate Beta 1/3,1/6 Glucan is twice as potent in creating the "nitric oxide burst" in the macrophage cells as all other globular or reaggregated glucans. The nitric oxide burst measurement is a definitive marker for the immune response potentiation by any given glucan.
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